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1999

Arne Larsson
Society: IEEEMain Category: ElectricEra: 1950-1959DateCreated: 1957-1958C. H. Best InstituteTorontoState: CACountry: USAWebsite: http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:First_Wearable_Cardiac_Pacemaker,_1957-1958Creator: Bakken, Earl E.

During the winter of 1957-58, Earl E. Bakken developed the first wearable transistorized pacemaker, the request of heart surgeon, Dr. C. Walton Lillehei. As earlier pacemakers were AC-powered, this battery-powered device liberated patients from their power-cord tethers. The wearable pacemaker was a significant step in the evolution to fully-implantable units.

YearAdded:
1999
Image Credit: Courtesy Professor Marko Turina, University Hospital, Zurich (CC BY 3.0)Image Caption: Arne H. W. Larsson (26th May 1915 to 28th December 2001) was the first recipient of an implantable pacemaker. He received the first device in 1958 and had a total of 26 devices during his life. He became an advocate for patients needing pacemakers, campaigning for greater funding and research in this area.Era_date_from: 1957
First Operational Use Of Wireless Telegraphy
Society: IEEEMain Category: ElectricEra: 1900-1909DateCreated: 1899-1902Telkom MuseumCapetownCountry: South AfricaWebsite: http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:First_Operational_Use_Of_Wireless_Telegraphy,_1899-1902

The first use of wireless telegraphy in the field occurred during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). The British Army experimented with Marconi's system and the British Navy successfully used it for communication among naval vessels in Delagoa Bay, prompting further development of Marconi's wireless telegraph system for practical uses. The Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902 will be remembered as the last of the gentleman's wars, the war that marked the end of the Victorian era.

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1999
Image Credit: Courtesy Cardiff Council Flat Holm Project (CC BY 3.0)Image Caption: Post Office Engineers inspect Marconi's equipment on Flat Holm, May 1897Era_date_from: 1899
Blue Ridge Parkway
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: Roads & RailsEra: 1930-1939DateCreated: 1935-1937Blue Ridge MountainsState: VACountry: USAWebsite: http://www.asce.org/Project/Blue-Ridge-Parkway/

Designed to connect the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia and the Great Smokey Mountains National Park in North Carolina, the Blue Ridge Parkway was planned to provide pleasant motoring and to conserve and interpret the unique natural and cultural resources of the Southern Highlands. It was conceived also as a public works project to relieve unemployment in the Appalachian region during the Great Depression.

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1999
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/thewebprincess (CC BY-ND 2.0) Image Caption: A stunning view from an outlook on the Blue Ridge Parkway, which is famous for its beautyEra_date_from: 1935
Foundation of Polymer Science by Hermann Staudinger
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1920-1929DateCreated: 1926-1956University of FreiburgFreiburg im BreisgauZip: 79117Country: GermanyWebsite: https://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/staudingerpolymerscience/foundation-of-polymer-science-by-herman-staudinger-commemorative-booklet.pdfCreator: Staudinger, Hermann

In the years 1926 to 1956, the German chemist Hermann Staudinger carried out his pathbreaking research on macromolecular chemistry in Freiburg. His theories on the polymer structures of fibers and plastics and his later research on biological macromolecules formed the basis for countless modern developments in the fields of materials science and biosciences and supported the rapid growth of the plastics industry. For his work in the field of polymers, Staudinger was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1953.

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1999
Image Credit: Original Image: Public Domain; Produced prior to 1/1/1969 (SWEDISH)Image Caption: Hermann StaudingerEra_date_from: 1926
Peterborough Hydraulic (Canal) Lift Lock
Society: ASMEMain Category: MechanicalSub Category: Water TransportationEra: 1900-1909DateCreated: 1904353 Hunter St EastPeterboroughState: ONCountry: CanadaWebsite: https://www.asme.org/about-asme/who-we-are/engineering-history/landmarks/205-peterborough-hydraulic-canal-lift-lockCreator: Rogers, Richard Birdsall , Dominion Bridge Company

Opened July 9, 1904, this lift lock is the highest of its type in the world, transferring boats between two water levels in a single 19.8 m (65 ft.) lift. Designed in place of conventional locks, which would have lengthed the time considerably to transverse a gradual drop, this lift lock was a unique solution made feasible. It operates on a balance principle. Each boat chamber is supported by a ram, 2.28 m (7.5 ft.) In diameter. These move up and down inside water-filled cylinders connected by a pipe.

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1999
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/Mac Armstrong (CC BY-SA 2.0)Image Caption: Peterborough Hydraulic Canal Lift LockEra_date_from: 1904
McNeill Street Pumping Station
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: Water Supply & ControlEra: 1880-1889DateCreated: 1887 Water Works MuseumShreveportState: LAZip: 71101Country: USAWebsite: http://www.asce.org/Project/McNeill-Street-Pumping-Station/Creator: Worthington, Henry R.

The city of Shreveport could not justify the cost of building a water distribution system solely for the purpose of supplying potable water. It was a series of disastrous fires in the 1880s that galvanized support for a pumping facility that would provide ample water for firefighting. 

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1999
Image Credit: Public Domain (National Park Service)Image Caption: McNeill Street Pumping StationEra_date_from: 1887
Cape Hatteras Lighthouse
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: Water TransportationEra: 1800-1829DateCreated: 1803Cape HatterasState: NCCountry: USAWebsite: http://www.asce.org/project/Cape-Hatteras-Lighthouse/

The Atlantic Ocean's northward-flowing Gulf Stream meets the southward-flowing Labrador Current at a point marked approximately by North Carolina's Outer Banks. Since the earliest days of United States commerce, shifting tides, inclement weather, treacherous shoals, and a low-lying shoreline there contributed to what soon became known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic. Warning sailors of this danger quickly became a top priority in the integrated system of navigational aids provided by the federal government to promote safe passage along the Atlantic Coast.  

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1999
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/almassengale (CC BY-ND 2.0)Image Caption: Cape Hatteras LighthouseEra_date_from: 1803
Arroyo Seco Parkway
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: Roads & RailsEra: 1940-1949DateCreated: 1940Pasadena to Los AngelesLos AngelosState: CACountry: USAWebsite: http://www.asce.org/project/arroyo-seco-parkway/Creator: Allen, T.D.

With its landscaped embankments, limited access, and depressed roadway, Arroyo Seco Parkway (now known as the Pasadena Freeway) became the prototype of the Los Angeles freeway system. Motorists enjoy a scenic drive featuring landscaped embankments lush with native chaparral. The curving alignment traverses a chain of small parks shaded by sycamores and eucalyptus and exposed views of the snow-capped San Gabriel Mountains.

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1999
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/prayitno (CC BY 2.0) Image Caption: Arroyo Seco Parkway (also called the Pasadena Freeway) as it is seen today by thousands of commutersEra_date_from: 1940
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1750-1799DateCreated: 1789Académie des Sciences de l’Institut de ParisZip: 75006Country: FranceWebsite: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/lavoisier.htmlCreator: Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier studied at the Académie des Sciences de l'Institut de France (then "Collège Mazarin") from 1754 to 1761. He was elected to the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1768, where he presented his important studies on oxygen in chemistry. These began with a "pli cacheté" of Nov. 2, 1772, and, after he experimentally proved the chemical composition of water by the quantitative method, culminated in his abandoning of the phlogistic theory in 1785.

YearAdded:
1999
Image Credit: Public Domain (Copyright Exp.)Image Caption: An early line engraving of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, made sometime in the early 19th century by Louis Jean Desire Delaistre, after an original piece by Julien Leopold Boilly.Era_date_from: 1789
Acueducto de Segovia
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: Water Supply & ControlEra: 0-1000DateCreated: First century ADCalle Teodosio El GrandeSegoviaState: SEGZip: 40001Country: SpainWebsite: http://www.asce.org/project/acueduto-de-segovia/Creator: Emperor Trajan

For 2,000 years, Aqueducto de Segovia has been conveying drinking water from the Frio River to Segovia, approximately 18 kilometers away. Built under the reign of Roman emperor Trajan, the aqueduct is one of the most intact and best-preserved Roman engineering masterpieces. Roman engineers built the channel of the aqueduct with an average one percent gradient over its whole length.

YearAdded:
1999
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/Nigel's Europe (CC BY-SA 2.0) Image Caption: A view from below of the highly symmetrical Segovia AqueductEra_date_from: First century AD
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