NJ https://www.inventionandtech.com/ en Fink Through Truss Bridge https://www.inventionandtech.com/content/fink-through-truss-bridge <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--landmark.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>Fink Through Truss Bridge</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-image-site-img--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-image-site-img.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-image-site-img.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-image-site-img field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/landmark_node_/public/fink_through_truss_bridge.jpg?itok=-mEvonED" width="250" height="349" alt="Fink Through Truss Bridge" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--landmark.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <a title="View user profile." href="/users/taiyuan-pai" lang="" about="/users/taiyuan-pai" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username"></a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--landmark.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Mon, 07/30/2012 - 15:38</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-society--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-society.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-society.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-society field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Society</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/society/asce" hreflang="en">ASCE</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-main-category--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-main-category.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-main-category.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-main-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Main Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/main-category/civil" hreflang="en">Civil</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-sub-category--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-sub-category.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-sub-category.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-sub-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Sub Category</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/subcategory/bridges" hreflang="en">Bridges</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-era--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-era.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-era.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-era field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Era</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/period/1850-1859" hreflang="en">1850-1859</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-date-created--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-date-created.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-date-created.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-date-created field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Date Created</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/date-created/1858" hreflang="en">1858</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-location-country--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-location-country.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-location-country.html.twig * field--string.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-location-country field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Location Country</div> <div class="field__item">us</div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-coordinates--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-coordinates.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-coordinates.html.twig * field--geolocation.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-coordinates field--type-geolocation field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Coordinates</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'geolocation_latlng_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'modules/geolocation/templates/geolocation-latlng-formatter.html.twig' --> <span typeof="Place"> <span property="geo" typeof="GeoCoordinates"> <meta property="latitude" content="40.605581"> <meta property="longitude" content="-74.90689"> </span> <span class="geolocation-latlng">40.605581, -74.90689</span> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'modules/geolocation/templates/geolocation-latlng-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-city--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-city.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-city.html.twig * field--string.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-city field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">City</div> <div class="field__item">Hamden</div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-state--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-state.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-state.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-state field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">State</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/state/nj" hreflang="en">NJ</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-country--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-country.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-country.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Country</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/country/usa" hreflang="en">USA</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-zip--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-zip.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-zip.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-zip field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Zip</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/zip/08801" hreflang="en">08801</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-website--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-website.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-website.html.twig * field--link.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-website field--type-link field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Website</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="http://www.asce.org/Project/Fink-Through-Truss-Bridge/">http://www.asce.org/Project/Fink-Through-Truss-Bridge/</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--landmark.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--body.html.twig * field--text-with-summary.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>"Fink's truss design was one of a number of early patented solutions to [the problem of how] to carry a massive, moving weight (a train) over long spans (to avoid the expense of building piers and obstructing waterways) on easily erected bridges (often in rough terrain) with good long-term economy..." <br />  - Kent Farnow Smith, "America's Oldest Functioning Iron-Truss Bridge," 1978</p> <p>The widespread popularity in the 1850s and 1860s of the Fink through truss bridge, constructed from a design patented in 1854 by architect and civil engineer Albert Fink, represents a critical period in the evolution of civil engineering in America. With railroads expanding dramatically, a replacement for wooden bridges was needed that could be built quickly, cheaply, and with a reasonable assurance that it would survive for an extended length of time.</p> <p>Fink's design combines elementary principles of bridge design with a practical application of available materials - cast and wrought iron - for the most efficient solution to building long-span bridges quickly and economically. By the mid-1870s, Fink's through truss bridges were eclipsed as bridge building grew more sophisticated, and steel emerged as a material better suited to bridge construction. The last of the Fink-designed bridges remaining in use was the 100-foot-long span at Hamden, New Jersey, which survived until 1978, when it was damaged in a vehicle collision. It has since been dismantled and stored for future restoration.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-landmark-tags--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-landmark-tags.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-landmark-tags.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-landmark-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/keyword/fink-0" hreflang="en">Fink</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/keyword/truss-0" hreflang="en">Truss</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/keyword/bridges" hreflang="en">Bridges</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/keyword/hamden" hreflang="en">Hamden</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/keyword/nj" hreflang="en">NJ</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/category/keyword/railroads" hreflang="en">Railroads</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comment--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-comment.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-comment.html.twig * field--string-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-comment field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field__item">Although destroyed in 1978 by a car collision, at the time of its dedication the Fink Through Truss Bridge was possibly the oldest metal truss bridge in the nation.</div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-image-credit--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-image-credit.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-image-credit.html.twig * field--string-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-image-credit field--type-string-long field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Image Credit</div> <div class="field__item">Courtesy Library of Congress</div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-image-caption--landmark.html.twig * field--node--field-image-caption.html.twig * field--node--landmark.html.twig * field--field-image-caption.html.twig * field--string-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-image-caption field--type-string-long field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Image Caption</div> <div class="field__item">This bridge is an example of the Fink truss, the most efficient solution to building long-span bridges quickly and economically during its time.</div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/gavias_great/templates/fields/field.html.twig' --> Mon, 30 Jul 2012 19:38:49 +0000 Taiyuan Pai 80482 at https://www.inventionandtech.com