Society: IEEEMain Category: ElectricalSub Category: Components, Circuits, Devices & SystemsEra: 1940-1949DateCreated: 1947Building 6Murray HillState: NJZip: 07974Country: USAWebsite: http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:Invention_of_the_First_Transistor_at_Bell_Telephone_Laboratories,_Inc.,_1947, http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/wps/portal/!ut/p/kcxml/04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKLd4w3MfQFSYGYRq6m-pEoYgbxjgiRIH1vfV-P_NxU_QD9gtzQiHJHR0UAAD_zXg!!/delta/base64xml/L0lJayEvUUd3QndJQSEvNElVRkNBISEvNl9BX0FLTC9lbl93dw!!?LMSG_CABINET=Bell_Labs&LMSG_CONTENT_FILE=History/Timeline/Timeline_Innovation_000060&UNIQUE_NAME=lu.gen.prt.pg.rendition&lu_lang_code=en_WWCreator: Shockley, William, Brattain, Walter H., Bardeen, John A., Bell Labs
Image Credit: National ArchivesEra_date_from: 1947
Society: SPIEMain Category: OpticsSub Category: Lasers & ElectroopticsEra: 1950-1959DateCreated: 1957600-700 Mountain AvenueMurray HillState: NJZip: 07974Country: USAWebsite: http://spie.org/Creator: Gould, Gordon , Bell Labs
Image Credit: Courtesy of the US Air ForceEra_date_from: 1957
As ideas developed, they abandoned infrared radiation to instead concentrate upon visible light. The concept originally was called an "optical maser". In 1958, Bell Labs filed a patent application for their proposed optical maser; and Schawlow and Townes submitted a manuscript of their theoretical calculations to the Physical Review, published that year in Volume 112, Issue No. 6. Simultaneously, at Columbia University, graduate student Gordon Gould was working on a doctoral thesis about the energy levels of excited thallium.