As much as we know today about the planets of the solar system, it’s almost incomprehensible that a mere 50 years ago we knew almost nothing about them. Observations of even Mars and Venus, Earth’s closest planetary neighbors, through Earth-based telescopes had provided only the most rudimentary information on their physical characteristics and essentially no information on the chemical properties of the planets and their atmospheres.
Lasers & Electrooptics
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Lasers & ElectroopticsEra: 1960sDateCreated: 1969University of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyState: CACountry: USAWebsite: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/mars-infrared-spectrometer.htmlCreator: Pimentel, George, Herr, Kenneth
Society: SPIEMain Category: OpticsSub Category: Lasers & ElectroopticsEra: 1950-1959DateCreated: 1957600-700 Mountain AvenueMurray HillState: NJZip: 07974Country: USAWebsite: http://spie.org/Creator: Gould, Gordon , Bell Labs
Image Credit: Courtesy of the US Air ForceEra_date_from: 1957
As ideas developed, they abandoned infrared radiation to instead concentrate upon visible light. The concept originally was called an "optical maser". In 1958, Bell Labs filed a patent application for their proposed optical maser; and Schawlow and Townes submitted a manuscript of their theoretical calculations to the Physical Review, published that year in Volume 112, Issue No. 6. Simultaneously, at Columbia University, graduate student Gordon Gould was working on a doctoral thesis about the energy levels of excited thallium.