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Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Environmental Control Era: 1920-1929 DateCreated: 1920 Hudson River Greenway; Manhattan New York State: NY Zip: Country: USA Website: Creator: Freeman, Milton
The first long underwater tunnel in the world designed for motor vehicle use was built from 1920 to 1927. The 29.5-foot-diameter, 8,500-foot-long twin tubes of this tunnel were shield-driven by the pneumatic method through extremely difficult river-bottom conditions that were overcome by the ingenuity and determination of its engineers, Clifford M. Holland, Milton H. Freeman, and Ole Singstad. They were the largest in the United States when built.
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/Bill Benzon (CC BY-SA 2.0) Image Caption: Holland Tunnel Ventilation System Era_date_from: 1920
Holland Tunnel
Society: ASCE Main Category: Civil Sub Category: Tunnels Era: 1920-1929 DateCreated: 1927 Hudson River Jersey City State: NJ Zip: 07310 Country: USA Website: Creator: Holland, Clifford

The 1.6-mile Holland Tunnel was the first underwater vehicular crossing of the Hudson River and the first tunnel specifically designed for automobiles and trucks. It dramatically reduced the time required to traverse the Hudson River, a trip previously possible only by ferry. 

A major difficulty when tunneling beneath a river is to keep water and mud from inundating the workers and equipment in the tunnel. Builders of the Holland Tunnel used a shield that enveloped the work site as the excavation progressed; this also avoided obstruction of shipping traffic during construction.

Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/Chris Leung (CC BY-SA 2.0) Image Caption: Holland Tunnel Era_date_from: 1927
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