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Hydraulic-Inclined Plane System of the Morris Canal
Society: ASCE Main Category: Civil Sub Category: Water Supply & Control Era: 1800-1829 DateCreated: 1824-1836 Phillipsburg to Newark Bay State: NJ Zip: Country: USA Website: Creator:

Morris Canal was built to transport coal from the Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania to industrial markets in Newark and New York. The total length of the canal was 106 miles. The canal climbed an astonishing 914 feet from Newark Bay to the summit at Lake Hopatcong, and then dropped 760 feet to the Delaware River at Phillipsburg. This gave the canal an average vertical slope of 18 feet per mile, steep compared to the contemporary Erie Canal's relatively gentle slope of one foot per mile.  

Image Credit: Courtesy ASCE Image Caption: The Hydraulic-Inclined Plane System gave the Morris Canal an average vertical slope of 18 feet per mile. Era_date_from: 1824
Morris Canal Reaction Turbine
Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Water Era: 1850-1859 DateCreated: 1850 Morris Canal Greenwich Township State: NJ Zip: 07840 Country: USA Website: Creator: Renwick, James

This reaction or "Scotch" turbine had as its antecedent the steam reaction wheel invented in Greek Alexandra by Hero around 100 B.C.. It found widespread hydraulic application in the United States from the beginning of the nineteenth century to mid-century when French-inspired hydraulic turbine design pushed reaction wheels into obsolence.

Image Credit: Public Domain (Author's Choice) Image Caption: Morris Canal Reaction Turbine Era_date_from: 1850
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