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Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Environmental Control Era: 1940-1949 DateCreated: 1948 Commonwealth Building Portland State: OR Zip: Country: USA Website: Creator: Graham, Charles , Belluschi, Pietro

The use of heat pumps for the heating and cooling of the Commonwealth Building, initiated in 1948, was a pioneering achievement in the western hemisphere. The theoretical conception of the heat pump was described in a neglected book, published in 1824 and written by a young French army officer, Sadi Carnot. Its practical application on a large scale is attributable to designers J. Donald Kroeker and Ray C. Chewning, building engineer Charles E. Graham, and architect Pietro Belluschi.

Image Credit: 1940s postcard featuring the new Commonwealth (Equitable) Building in Portland, OR. Image Caption: Commonwealth Building Heat Pump Era_date_from: 1948
Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Pumping Era: 1910-1919 DateCreated: 1914 Sewerage and Water Board New Orleans State: LA Zip: 70165 Country: USA Website: Creator: Wood, Baldwin
With a water table several feet below ground level, New Orleans faced a crisis after every heavy rainfall, not just through flooding but also through disease (yellow fever and malaria) caused by impure water. New Orleans was dependent on mechanical means for lifting water from its canals and sewage systems. A. Baldwin Wood (1879-1956), a young assistant city engineer, designed and installed a system of large screw pumps (axial flow machines) to syphon water and accelerate drainage. By 1915 the Wood screw pump became the most advanced drainage pump in use.
Image Credit: Courtesy ASME Image Caption: This 14-foot tall Wood Screw Pump, constructed 1929, drained even more sewage/water/drainage than the 12-foot drains that preceded it Era_date_from: 1914
Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump-Turbine 1
Society: ASME Main Category: Electric, Mechanical Sub Category: Water Era: 1950-1959 DateCreated: 1956 Murphy State: NC Zip: 28906 Country: USA Website:, Creator: Allis-Chalmers Company

The integration of pump and turbine was the first of many to be installed in power-plant systems in the United States. It was the largest and most powerful in the world. As a "pump storage" unit in the Tennessee Valley Authority's system, it effected significant economies in the generation of electrical energy. The unit was designed by engineers of the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Allis-Chalmers Company. It was built by Allis-Chalmers.

Image Credit: Public Domain (Tennessee Valley Authority) Image Caption: Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump-Turbine 1 Era_date_from: 1956
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