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Discovery of Fullerenes
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1980-1989DateCreated: 1985Rice UniversityHoustonState: TXZip: 77005Country: USAWebsite: Curl, Robert , Kroto, Harold

In early September 1985, a team of scientists discovered a previously unknown pure carbon molecule, C60, which they dubbed buckminsterfullerene. The name was chosen because the geodesic domes of Buckminster Fuller provided a clue that the molecule’s atoms might be arranged in the form of a hollow cage. The structure, a truncated icosahedron with 32 faces, 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal, has the shape of a soccer ball.

Image Credit: Courtesy Wikipedia/Itamblyn (CC BY-SA 3.0)Image Caption: Buckminsterfullerene C60 is an example of a structure in the fullerene family.Era_date_from: 1985
Production of the Vultee Vengeance bombers for the Royal Air Force at Downey, California
Society: AIAAMain Category: Aerospace & AviationSub Category: AviationEra: 1920-1929DateCreated: 192912214 Lakewood BoulevardDowneyState: CACountry: USAWebsite: Emsco Aircraft Corporation

Established in 1929, and owned by several different aviation companies through its history, the Downey site was the design, test, and production site for various airplanes and spacecraft that defined American aerospace accomplishments in the 20th century.

Image Caption: Production of the Vultee Vengeance bombers for the Royal Air Force at Downey, California, 1942Era_date_from: 1929
Central Yacht Basin
Society: AIAAMain Category: Aerospace & AviationSub Category: AviationEra: 1910-1919St. Petersburg Museum of HistorySt PetersburgState: FLZip: 33701Country: USAWebsite: Benoist, Tom , Fansler, Percival

The St. Petersburg Yacht Basin was the original operating location of the St. Petersburg – Tampa Airboat Line, the nation’s first, regularly-scheduled commercial airline. The line’s inaugural flight was on January 1, 1914, with two daily, round-trip flights between St. Petersburg, Fla., and Tampa, Fla., using two Benoist Type XIV airboats. The flights were twenty-two minutes in length, one way, and rarely exceeded an altitude of five feet above the waters of Tampa Bay.

Image Credit: Courtesy of the Collections of Bjorn Larrson/David ZekriaImage Caption: Central Yacht Basin
Development of Diagnostic Test Strips
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: MedicalEra: 1940sDateCreated: 1941ETHOS Science CenterElkhartState: INCountry: USAWebsite:, Free, Al, Free, Helen

It is difficult to recall a time when doctors and patients had trouble tracking the presence of glucose and other substances in urine and blood. Lack of sufficient measurement tools made it difficult to manage a host of diseases, including diabetes as well as other metabolic diseases and kidney and liver conditions. Today, self-management of these diseases is an easier process because of the development of diagnostic test strips by Alfred and Helen Free and their research team at Miles Laboratories.


The text of the plaque commemorating the development reads:

Image Caption: Advert for Ames home urine testing kit
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