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Montgolfier Balloon
Society: AIAAMain Category: Aerospace & AviationSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1750-1799DateCreated: 1768-1790AnnonayCountry: FranceWebsite: Joseph Michel, Montgolfier, Jacques Etienne

On 4 June 1783, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier captured the imagination of the world with their first balloon flight at Cordeliers Square.  There were no passengers, but the Regional Council and the whole town population saw the machine go up and stay aloft at 500 meters for ten minutes. The scientific world raced to make use of the Montgolfiers’ discovery, and all accomplishments made since then by aeronauts, aviators, and astronauts can be traced directly to this site.

Image Caption: Physicist Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis d’Arlandes take flight in the Montgolfier-style balloon on November 21, 1783, 5 months after the initial launch.
T.S. Lowe Ascent
Society: AIAAMain Category: Aerospace & AviationSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeDateCreated: 1861National Mall at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space MuseumWashington, D.C.Country: USAWebsite: Lowe, T.S.

T.S.C. Lowe’s Observation Flight

Image Caption: View of balloon ascension. Prof. Thaddeus Lowe observing the Battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks from his balloon "Intrepid" on the north side of the Chicahominy.
The instrument panel of the Spirit of St. Louis
Society: AIAAMain Category: Aerospace & AviationSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1920sDateCreated: 1920-19272701 Midway DrSan DiegoState: CACountry: USAWebsite: Ryan, Claude, Lindbergh, Charles

On this site, which was the Dutch Flats Airport, Charles A. Lindbergh made the first flight of his Spirit of St. Louis airplane, constructed in 60 days by dedicated employees of Ryan Airlines, Inc.  The 20-minute flight on 28 April 1927 was witnessed by those who built the aircraft. Lindbergh describes the flight:

Image Caption: The instrument panel of the Spirit of St. Louis
James Hart Wyld
Society: AIAAMain Category: Aerospace & AviationSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1930sDateCreated: 1930sDenvilleState: NJCountry: USAWebsite: Wyld, James Hart, Lovell Lawrence, Pendray, George Edward, Pierce, Hugh, Shesta, John

The first company in the United States dedicated solely to the production of the liquid rocket engine, Reaction Motors, Inc. (RMI) was formed in 1941.  Its four founders were rocket enthusiasts and members of the American Rocket Society. RMI developed the rocket motors that powered the first supersonic flight, that of the X-1; the retro rockets for five NASA surveyor lunar soft landers; and prepackaged liquid rocket engines for the U.S. Navy Bullpup A & B air to ground missiles, among many other pioneering programs.

Image Credit: Courtesy Smithsonian InstitutionImage Caption: James Wyld, one of the RMI founders, holding a rocket motor at an ARS test in Midvale, New Jersey, 1941.
Alberto Santos-Dumont
Society: AIAAMain Category: Aerospace & AviationSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeRua do Encanto, 22 - Centro, Petrópolis - RJ, 25685-081, BrazilSao PaoloWebsite:

Born 20 July 1873 in the state of Sao Paolo, Alberto Santos Dumont moved to Paris in 1891 but never forgot his birthplace. He soon began experimenting with flying, and designed his first balloon, the Brasil, in 1898. He later built and flew 11 dirigibles, including the prize-winning Number 6. He flew his first airplane, the 14 bis, on 23 October 1906, the first aircraft to take off and land without any external assistance. His many other contributions to aviation included his 1909 Demoiselle, the precursor to modern light airplanes.

Image Caption: Brazilian aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont with his No. 18 "floatplane", never completed
Izaak Maurits Kolthoff
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1930sUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisState: MNCountry: USAWebsite: Kolthoff, Izaak Maurits

Izaak Maurits Kolthoff (1894–1993) has been described as the father of modern analytical chemistry for his research and teaching that transformed the ways by which scientists separate, identify, and quantify chemical substances. Once a collection of empirical recipes and prescriptions, the field of analytical chemistry is today an essential branch of chemistry built upon solid theoretical principles and experimental techniques, the basis of which was formed over the course of Kolthoff’s nearly 80-year career.

Image Credit: Courtesy of University of Minnesota Archives, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities. Image Caption: Izaak Maurits Kolthoff in his laboratory in 1950.
The Keeling Curve, December 2014
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1950sDateCreated: 1950-1969Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of CaliforniaLa JollaState: CACountry: USAWebsite: Keeling, Charles David

Charles David Keeling of Scripps Institution of Oceanography was the leading authority in establishing the global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record. In 1958, Keeling began measuring atmospheric CO2 con­centrations from Hawaii’s Mauna Loa Observatory. Using rigorous analytical procedures, he revealed new information about natural and man-caused carbon trends.

Image Credit: Courtesy Wikicommons/Scrippsnews (CC BY-SA 4.0)Image Caption: The Keeling Curve, December 2014
Foundation of Polymer Science by Hermann Staudinger
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1920-1929DateCreated: 1926-1956University of FreiburgFreiburg im BreisgauZip: 79117Country: GermanyWebsite: Staudinger, Hermann

In the years 1926 to 1956, the German chemist Hermann Staudinger carried out his pathbreaking research on macromolecular chemistry in Freiburg. His theories on the polymer structures of fibers and plastics and his later research on biological macromolecules formed the basis for countless modern developments in the fields of materials science and biosciences and supported the rapid growth of the plastics industry. For his work in the field of polymers, Staudinger was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1953.

Image Credit: Original Image: Public Domain; Produced prior to 1/1/1969 (SWEDISH)Image Caption: Hermann StaudingerEra_date_from: 1926
Discovery of Organic Free Radicals by Moses Gomberg
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1900-1909DateCreated: 1900University Of MichiganAnn ArborState: MICountry: USAWebsite: Gomberg, Moses

In 1900, Moses Gomberg, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Michigan, confirmed the existence of a stable, trivalent organic free radical: triphenylmethyl. In so doing, he challenged the then prevailing belief that carbon could have only four chemical bonds. Gomberg’s discovery made a major contribution to theoretical organic chemistry and fostered a field of research that continues to grow and expand. Today, organic free radicals are widely used in plastics and rubber manufacture, as well as medicine, agriculture and biochemistry.

Image Credit: Public Domain (Copyright Exp.)Image Caption: Discovery of Organic Free Radicals by Moses GombergEra_date_from: 1900
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Frontiers of KnowledgeEra: 1970-1979DateCreated: 1970s UniversityStony BrookState: NYZip: 11794Country: USAWebsite: Lauterbur, Paul
In the early 1970s, American chemist Paul C. Lauterbur demonstrated that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) could be used to generate images of macroscopic objects. In the years following, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been refined as a technique for the detailed resolution of internal structures. Lauterbur’s invention thus created a powerful diagnostic tool for the non-invasive examination of body tissues such as the brain, heart, and muscles. It allows for the early detection of cancer and other diseases.
Image Credit: Original Image: Courtesy of Flickr/Everyone's Idle (CC BY-SA 2.0)Image Caption: NMR and MRI: Applications in Chemistry and MedicineEra_date_from: 1970s
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