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Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Cradles of ChemistryEra: 1600sHistoric Jamestown SettlementWilliamsburgState: VACountry: USAWebsite:,

Recent archaeological evidence reveals early Virginia, which included both the Roanoke and Jamestown colonies, as the birthplace of the American chemical enterprise. Chemical processes first applied experimentally at Roanoke were re-introduced at Jamestown twenty years later.

Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/bootbearwdc (CC BY 2.0)Image Caption: Housing within James Fort at Jamestown settlement, Virginia
City Plan of Philadelphia
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: StructuresEra: 1600sDateCreated: 1682PhiladelphiaState: PAZip: undefinedCountry: USAWebsite:

The City Plan of Philadelphia is a seminal creation in American city planning in that it was the first American City Plan to provide open public squares for the free enjoyment of the community and a gridiron street pattern featuring streets of varying widths: wide main streets and narrower side streets. In addition this plan was the first city plan in the United States to provide for long-term urban growth. These features inspired the planners of many cities to adopt the Philadelphia Plan as a model. 

Image Credit: Courtesy Wikipedia/DogearsImage Caption: The City Plan of Philadelphia pioneered many features of American city planning.Era_date_from: 1682
Frankford Avenue Bridge
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: BridgesEra: 1600sDateCreated: 1697Pennypack ParkPhiladelphiaState: PAZip: 19114Country: USAWebsite: Unknown

"For 273 years, the little stone bridge that carries Frankford Ave. across Pennypack Creek has been doing its humble job with a minimum of attention..." 
 - Gerald McKelvey, The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 16, 1970

Image Credit: Public Domain (National Park Service)Image Caption: Frankford Avenue BridgeEra_date_from: 1697
Castillo de San Marcos
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: BuildingsEra: 1600sDateCreated: 1672-1695St. AugustineState: FLCountry: USAWebsite:

The fort was constructed of coquina rock. Unique to Florida, the rock consists of millions of seashells cemented together. It proved highly durable and easily absorbed the force of many cannon balls. 

The Castillo de San Marcos was the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States. Originally an outpost of the Spanish Empire, it is the oldest major engineered structure existing in America.

Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/inazakira (CC BY-SA 2.0)Image Caption: Castillo de San MarcosEra_date_from: 1672
Saugus Ironworks
Society: ASMEMain Category: MechanicalSub Category: Minerals Extraction & RefiningEra: 1600sDateCreated: 1647 Ironworks National Historic SiteSaugusState: MAZip: 01906Country: USAWebsite:, Winthrop the Younger, John

The Saugus Ironworks, the first commercial ironworks in North America, was an impressive technological achievement for an early colony. The same basic processes are used today: reducing iron oxide with carbon to produce metallic iron that can be cast in a mold, producing wrought iron by puddling cast iron, and fabricating wrought iron with power hammer and rolls.

Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/Kristin Shoemaker (CC BY-ND 2.0)Image Caption: One of the Saugus Ironworks' water wheels in motionEra_date_from: 1647
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