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World War II

Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: BuildingsEra: 1940-1949DateCreated: 1943Icarus WayAieState: HIZip: 96701Country: USAWebsite: U.S. Navy, Goodrich Tire Company

Conceived in the early years of World War II as a plan to bury four fuel containers horizontally in a hillside at the U.S. Navy facility at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility ultimately encompassed the design and construction of 20 vertical storage tanks - each large enough to contain a 20-story building - buried in the volcanic hillside and connected by tunnels to a harbor-side pumping station more than two-and-a-half miles away.

Image Credit: Courtesy Wikicommons/Leslie Nelson (CC BY-SA 4.0)Image Caption: Above-ground fuel storage tanks at Pearl Harbor prior to the construction of Red Hill.Era_date_from: 1943
Portland Observatory
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: Water TransportationEra: 1800-1829DateCreated: 1807Munjoy HillPortlandState: MEZip: 04101Country: USAWebsite: Moody, Lemuel

The Portland Observatory was built in 1807 by Captain Lemuel Moody to serve as a communication station for Portland Harbor. Portland Observatory was one of the earliest marine signal stations in the United States, and it is the last known to survive. The Observatory's location on Munjoy Hill gave it a clear view of vessels approaching Portland Harbor. The Observatory contributed to the prosperity of Portland Harbor as a vital center of maritime commerce during the "Golden Age of Sail."  

Image Credit: Courtesy Wikipedia/Econrad (CC BY-SA 3.0)Image Caption: Portland ObservatoryEra_date_from: 1807
NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel
Society: ASMEMain Category: MechanicalSub Category: Research and DevelopmentEra: 1950-1959DateCreated: 1956NASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldState: CAZip: 94035Country: USAWebsite:

This wind tunnel complex was developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NASA's predecessor) to serve the emerging need for supersonic research and development following World War II. The three-testing-section configuration covers Mach number .03-3.5 and utilizes a single common drive and two compressors.

Image Credit: Public Domain (NASA)Image Caption: NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind TunnelEra_date_from: 1956
Herman Mark
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Cradles of ChemistryEra: 1940-1949DateCreated: 1946Polytechnic Institute of New York UniversityBrooklynState: NYZip: 11201Country: USAWebsite: Mark, Herman

The Polymer Research Institute was established in 1946 by Herman F. Mark, a pioneer in the study of giant molecules. The Institute brought together a number of polymer researchers to create the first academic facility in the United States devoted to the study and teaching of polymer science. Scientists associated with it later went on to establish polymer programs at other universities and institutions, contributing significantly to the development and growth of what has become a vital branch of chemistry, engineering, and materials science.

Image Caption: Herman Mark and the Polymer Research InstituteEra_date_from: 1946
Hanford B Reactor
Society: ASMEMain Category: MechanicalSub Category: Minerals Extraction & RefiningEra: 1940-1949DateCreated: 1944Hanford SiteSunnysideState: WAZip: 98944Country: USAWebsite: Fermi, Enrico , E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

The Hanford B-Reactor was the first plutonium production reactor to be placed in operation. Its success made possible the subsequent development of atomic energy. The research work, engineering, and planning required to make the reactor operate is one of our most advanced achievements. Much of the reactor core, cooling system, shielding, and auxiliary systems were designed by mechanical engineers.

Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/David Lee (CC BY-SA 2.0)Image Caption: Hanford B ReactorEra_date_from: 1944
Hanford B Reactor
Society: ASCEMain Category: CivilSub Category: BuildingsEra: 1940-1949DateCreated: 1944Near the Hanford SiteRichlandState: WAZip: 98944Country: USAWebsite: Fermi, Enrico , E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

In the first nine months of operation, the B reactor produced fissionable plutonium for the world's first atomic bomb (the Trinity test on July 16, 1945), and for the atomic bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945, killing 35,000 people.  This, and similar destruction at Hiroshima caused by the atomic bomb dropped three days earlier, hastened the end of World War II.

Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/David Lee (CC BY-SA 2.0)Image Caption: Hanford B ReactorEra_date_from: 1944
Gilman Hall
Society: ACSMain Category: ChemicalSub Category: Cradles of ChemistryEra: 1910-1919DateCreated: 1917Gilman HallBerkeleyState: CAZip: 94720Country: USAWebsite: Lewis, Gilbert , Howard, John Galen

Gilman Hall, built in 1916-1917, accommodated a growing College of Chemistry by providing expanded research and teaching facilities for faculty and students specializing in physical, inorganic and nuclear chemistry. Work performed at Gilman Hall helped advance the fields of chemical thermodynamics and molecular structure, and has resulted in multiple Nobel Prizes. The Hall is most famous for the work of Glenn T. Seaborg and his coworkers, which included the successful identification and production the element Plutonium. Seaborg received the Nobel Prize in 1951 for his accomplishments.

Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/Waqas Bhatti (CC BY-SA 2.0)Image Caption: Gilman HallEra_date_from: 1917
Society: IEEEMain Category: ElectricalSub Category: Computers and Information ProcessingEra: 1940-1949DateCreated: 1939-1945BletchleyMilton KeynesState: BuckinghamshireZip: MK3 6GYCountry: UKWebsite:,_1939-1945Creator: Sinclair, Hugh , Turing, Alan
On this site during the 1939-45 World War, 12,000 men and women broke the German Lorenz and Enigma ciphers, as well as Japanese and Italian codes and ciphers. They used innovative mathematical analysis and were assisted by two computing machines developed here by teams led by Alan Turing: the electro-mechanical Bombe developed with Gordon Welchman, and the electronic Colossus designed by Tommy Flowers. These achievements greatly shortened the war, thereby saving countless lives.
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/Draco2008 (CC BY 2.0)Image Caption: Code-Breaking at Bletchley Park during World War IIEra_date_from: 1939
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