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Water Transportation

Society: ASCE Main Category: Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1910-1919 DateCreated: 1915 2 Pine St Lockport State: NY Zip: Country: USA Website: http://www.asce.org/project/flight-of-five-locks/ Creator:

The confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers was the site of distinct advances in transportation of the early 19th Century. The Erie Canal in 1825 and the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad in 1831 were both of national significance.  

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Lake Washington Ship Canal & Hiram M. Chittenden Locks
Society: ASCE Main Category: Civil Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1910-1919 DateCreated: 1917 Hiram M. Chittenden Locks and Carl S. English Jr. Botanical Garden Zanesville State: WA Zip: 98107 Country: USA Website: http://www.asce.org/project/lake-washington-ship-canal---hiram-m-chittenden-locks/ Creator: Chittenden, Hiram

After more than 50 years of contention and debate, dredging began in 1911 on an eight-mile channel connecting Puget Sound, Seattle's gateway to the Pacific, to two inland freshwater lakes, Lake Washington and Lake Union. With the completion of the Lake Washington ship channel and Chittenden locks, coal and logs from the interior had a dedicated water route to the ocean, and the city's 4 1/2 miles of coastal harbor burgeoned into 100 miles of commercial, industrial and recreational piers and wharves.  

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1997
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/gb_packards (CC BY-ND 2.0) Image Caption: Lake Washington ship channel and Chittenden locks allowed for the transport of coal and logs and revitalized the coastal harbor. Era_date_from: 1917
Forth & Clyde Canal and Union Canal
Society: ASCE Main Category: Civil Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1750-1799 DateCreated: 1768-1790 Forth to Bowling on the Clyde, Scotland Glasgow State: Zip: Country: UK Website: http://www.asce.org/project/forth---clyde-canal/ Creator: Smeaton, John

It took 22 years to complete the 35-mile waterway, as funding problems caused the work to shut down from 1777 to 1785.  

The notion of creating a canal that crossed Scotland was conceived in the 17th century during the reign of Charles II, but would not be realized for nearly 100 years.  The Forth and Clyde Canal, known as The Great Canal in its early years, was the first major transportation project in Scotland and the world's first man-made, sea-to-sea ship canal.   

YearAdded:
2000
Image Credit: Courtesy Wikipedia/Michel Van den Berghe (CC BY-SA 2.0) Image Caption: The Forth and Clyde Canal, known as The Great Canal in its early years, was the first major transportation project in Scotland and the world's first man-made, sea-to-sea ship canal. Era_date_from: 1768
Ohio Canal System
Society: ASCE Main Category: Civil Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1800-1829 DateCreated: 1825 N/A State: OH Zip: Country: USA Website: http://www.asce.org/Project/Ohio-Canal-System/ Creator: Ohio, State of

Between 1825 and 1847 the State of Ohio constructed 1,000 miles of canals and feeder canals, 33,000 acres of reservoir surface area, 29 dams across streams, 294 lift locks, 44 aqueducts and many smaller structures at a cost of about 16 million dollars. The network of navigable canals provided a system of economical transportation where none had previously existed; the young state, with its isolated frontier lifestyle, was transformed almost overnight into a thriving segment of the nation's economy.

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1983
Image Credit: Courtesy Wikipedia Image Caption: A part of the Ohio Canal System in 1902. Era_date_from: 1825
Louisville and Portland Canal Locks & Dam
Society: ASCE Main Category: Civil Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1830-1839 DateCreated: 1830 Louisville State: KY Zip: 40202 Country: USA Website: http://www.asce.org/Project/Louisville-and-Portland-Canal-Locks---Dam/ Creator: Louisville and Portland Canal Company

Chartered in 1825, the Louisville and Portland Canal Company was authorized to construct a canal around the rapids called the "Falls of the Ohio." Construction started on March 1, 1826. The canal and first generation of locks were completed in 1830. As originally constructed, the canal was 1.9 miles long, 64 feet wide, and terminated at its lower end with a three-flight lock system with a total lift of 26 feet. Each lock chamber was 198 feet long between miter posts, with available length for vessels of 183 feet, width of 52 feet, and a lift at low stages of 8.5 feet.

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2002
Image Credit: public domain Image Caption: The Louisville and Portland Canal was completed in 1830. Era_date_from: 1830
USS Cairo Engine and Boilers
Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1860-1869 DateCreated: 1862 National Battlefield Vicksburg State: MS Zip: 39183 Country: USA Website: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/history/landmarks/topics-m-z/water-transportation/-143-uss-cairo-engine-and-boilers-%281862%29 Creator: Pook, Samuel , Eads, James

The Cairo is the sole survivor of the fleet of river gunboats built by the Union during the Civil War with the object of controlling the lower Mississippi River. Designed by Samuel Pook and built by James B. Eads, it saw limited battle and was sunk on the Yazoo River in 1862 by newly developed electronically detonated mines, becoming the first craft ever sunk by this predecessor to torpedo technology. The 175-foot ironclad vessel had 13 guns.

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Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/James Case (CC BY 2.0) Image Caption: USS Cairo Engine and Boilers Era_date_from: 1862
USS Albacore
Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1950-1959 DateCreated: 1953 Submarine Memorial Association Portsmouth State: NH Zip: Country: USA Website: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/history/landmarks/topics-m-z/water-transportation/-209-uss-albacore-%281953%29, https://www.asme.org/getmedia/04c57e57-f78e-461b-84c1-858a60d0be89/209-USS-Albacore-1953.aspx Creator: David Taylor Model Basin, Portsmouth Naval Shipyard

The USS Albacore (AGSS-569) represented a radical change in submarine design. The hull was designed with underwater speed as the prime requirement, and it was built with newly developed high-strength steel (HY-80). In addition to these two major innovations, the Albacore served as a test vessel for many new designs in submarine technology so that they could be refined before implementing them into the fleet. Among them was the testing of various control designs and correlation of actual sea-trial performance with that predicted in tow-tank tests.  

YearAdded:
2000
Image Credit: Image Caption: USS Albacore Era_date_from: 1953
Turbinia
Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1890-1899 DateCreated: 1897 Tyne and Wear Museums Service Newcastle upon Tyne State: Zip: NE1 4 Country: UK Website: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/history/landmarks/topics-m-z/water-transportation/-73-turbinia-%281897%29, https://www.asme.org/getmedia/49f372ec-0fe3-4447-bcc2-30b5b58e7032/73-Turbinia-1897.aspx Creator: Parsons, Charles Algernon, Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company

The Turbinia was the world's first turbine-driven ship. It attracted worldwide attention at the 1897 Spithead Naval Review by traveling more than 34 knots. This remarkable performance accelerated the acceptance of the steam turbine as an alternative to the steam reciprocating engine on ships as well as for central electric light and power stations. Sir Charles A. Parsons (1854-1931) invented (1884), developed, and promoted the steam turbine, as well as the design of the Turbinia. For this, he is considered among the outstanding technological innovators of all time.

YearAdded:
1982
Image Credit: Public Domain (Copyright Expired) Image Caption: Turbinia Era_date_from: 1897
Suez Canal Project
Society: ASCE Main Category: Civil Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1860-1869 DateCreated: 1869 Canal del Esla Ismailia State: Zip: Country: Egypt Website: http://www.asce.org/project/suez-canal/ Creator: de Lesseps, Ferdinand , Suez Canal Company

The idea of creating a canal linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea is a very old one that dates back about 4000 years to the ancient Egyptians. They thought of linking the two seas by using the River Nile and its branches. It was this very old desire that led to the digging of the present Suez Canal.  

YearAdded:
2003
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/eutrophication&hypoxia (CC BY 2.0) Image Caption: Suez Canal Project Era_date_from: 1869
SS Badger Carferry
Society: ASME Main Category: Mechanical Sub Category: Water Transportation Era: 1950-1959 DateCreated: 1952 Lake Michigan Ludington State: MI Zip: 49431 Country: USA Website: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/history/landmarks/topics-m-z/water-transportation/-191-ss-badger-carferry-%281952%29 Creator: Christy Corporation, Skinner Engine Company

The two 3,500-hp steeple compound Unaflow steam engines powering the S.S. Badger represent one of the last types of reciprocating marine steam engines. Built by the Skinner Engine Company, most Unaflow engines are single expansion. These feature tandem high- and low-pressure cylinders separated by a common head. The Badger's four Foster-Wheeler Type D marine boilers, which supply 470-psig steam to the engines, are among the last coal-fired marine boilers built. 

YearAdded:
1996
Image Credit: Courtesy Flickr/ssbadger (CC BY 2.0) Image Caption: SS Badger Carferry Era_date_from: 1952
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Innovations

Muskingum River Navigation System

Most of the locks were 184 feet long and 36 feet wide, able to handle boats up to 160 feet long. The sandstone locks (along with wood miter gates, rock-filled timber-crib dams and bypass canals with guard gates) created a slackwater navigation system stretching over 90 miles.  

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Old Cape Henry Lighthouse

The Old Cape Henry Light house was the first construction project authorized by the First Congress. Constructed by John McComb, Jr. of New York City, this project set the stage for all subsequent public works projects of the Federal Government. In addition, this specific lighthouse was a vital…

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Cape Cod Canal

The idea of a canal eliminating the costly and dangerous sea trip around the Massachusetts peninsula of Cape Cod was envisioned as early as 1623 by Pilgrim leader Miles Standish. It was not until financier August Belmont became involved in 1906, however, that sufficient funds for the project…

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Cape Hatteras Lighthouse

The Atlantic Ocean's northward-flowing Gulf Stream meets the southward-flowing Labrador Current at a point marked approximately by North Carolina's Outer Banks. Since the earliest days of United States commerce, shifting tides, inclement weather, treacherous shoals, and a low-lying shoreline…

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Chesapeake and Delaware Canal

The Chesapeake & Delaware Canal is the only canal built in 19th-century America that still operates today as a major shipping route. Connecting the Port of Baltimore and Upper Chesapeake Bay with the mouth of the Delaware River and the Port of Philadelphia, the canal was one of the first…

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Davis Island Lock and Dam

Before the Davis Island Lock & Dam were built, the flow of the Ohio River slowed to little more than a trickle during dry periods. For several months each year, the unreliable flow stranded Pittsburgh's steamboats, towboats, and barges.    

The Davis Island Lock &…

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Dismal Swamp Canal

The Dismal Swamp Canal was created as a 22-mile waterway, extending from Deep Creek, Virginia to South Mills, North Carolina. The canal enabled North Carolina producers of building and agricultural products to deliver goods to the Port of Norfolk where they were transferred to ocean-going…

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Eads Bridge

In the decade following the Civil War, the Mississippi River began to lose its standing as the primary transport artery in the Midwest. Railroads were taking over, and Chicago was rapidly becoming the center of Midwestern commerce. The Eads Bridge was the first major railroad link over the…

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Eddystone Lighthouse

An early image of the James Douglass lighthouse, with the stump of the Smeaton-designed building beside it.  

Eddystone Lighthouse is located in the English Channel, 14 miles south of Plymouth, England. The reef upon which it stands was the source of many shipwrecks... and many…

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Erie Canal

In its day, the famous Erie Canal was the world's longest canal and America's greatest engineering feat. It was the principal route for emigrants from the East and agricultural products from the West. Before construction of the canal, New York City was the nation's fifth largest seaport, behind…

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This outboard motor, designed and built by Ole Evinrude (1877-1934) at the Evinrude Motor Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was quickly accepted by the boating public of the United States. Bess Evinrude called the prototype a "coffee grinder," but it moved a boat through water better than the huge… Read More
Baldwin's dry dock in Virginia has been designated a National Historical Landmark and is still in use at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. The Charlestown dry dock and original pump house, while no longer used, are on display as part of the Boston National Historical Park. Although the need for dry-… Read More
Gota Canal

The Gota Canal is the biggest infrastructure project ever built in Sweden. The canal was dug by hand with shovels made of wood. It took over 22 years of 12-hour days - an estimated 12 million man-days of labor - to complete the project.  

The Gota (pronounced yeu-ta) Canal is a 347-…

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Houston Ship Channel

The 50-mile Houston Ship Channel is a manmade port for ocean-going vessels, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Houston and Harris County, Texas.   

The waterway was originally known as Buffalo Bayou and was swampy, marshy, and overgrown with dense vegetation. Steamboats and…

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John Penn & Sons Oscillating Steam Engine

The oscillating steam engine, built by John Penn & Sons, is located aboard the famed paddle steamer Diesbar.  Diesbar is the second oldest of a fleet of nine paddle steamers in Dresden.  What makes the Diesbar unique is its coal fueled engine and single deck design.  The John Penn and Sons…

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The Belle of Louisville, built in 1914, is the oldest operating “western rivers” steamboat. It has the shallow-draft flat-bottom hull braced by hog-chain trusses, multiple fire-tube boilers, paddlewheel propulsion, and superstructure configuration that were characteristic of hundreds of steamboats… Read More
Middlesex Canal

While the Erie Canal  has become well-known in the annals of American history, the Middlesex Canal, built two decades earlier and a model for canal engineers throughout young America, has only recently become recognized for its important achievements. Extending 27 miles northeast from Boston…

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Minot's Ledge Lighthouse

Minot's Ledge is a wave-swept rock formation in a rocky area of ocean about a mile off the Cohasset shore near Boston. Numerous serious shipwrecks prompted the government to erect a beacon there, and construction began in the summer of 1847.  

The light, constructed on tall iron legs…

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New Castle Ice Harbor

In 1794, the Delaware legislature authorized a lottery to fund the erection of ice piers in the harbor at New Castle. The ice harbor was designed to protect anchored ships from storms and ice. At the time, New Castle served as the principal winter port for ships from the Port of Philadelphia…

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NS Savannah

The N.S. Savannah was the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, built by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation at Camden, New Jersey. The 74 maximum-power thermal megawatt pressurized-water reactor was supplied by the Babcock & Wilcox Company. Nearly 600 feet long with 22,000-tons…

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